How did the Internet begin
The history of the Institute begins in 1957 when the Computer Center of the Academy of Sciences (AS) of the Ukrainian SSR was created based on the Laboratory of Computational Mathematics and Engineering at the Institute of Mathematics of AS of the Ukrainian SSR, which was transformed into the Institute of Cybernetics of AS of the Ukrainian SSR in 1962. It was exactly the laboratory of the Institute of Electrical Engineering of AS of the Ukrainian SSR in which the first (in the USSR and continental Europe) small computer „МЭСМ” was created in 1950 under the direction of Academician S.O. Lebedyev.
From the first years of its activities, the Institute conducted profound theoretical studies in the fields of optimization theory, abstract and applied automata theory, discrete transducers theory, artificial intelligence theory, and theory of programming.
The methods and tools of cybernetics were extended to other sciences such as economics, biology, medicine, and research of complex systems. In this way, the foundations for economic, biological, and engineering cybernetics were laid and efficient approaches to modeling and solving complex multidimensional problems were developed
Along with fundamental studies, an important place in the themes of the Institute was allotted to applied works. To accelerate the practical implementation of the Institute’s developments, a Special Design Bureau of Mathematical Machines and Systems with its Pilot Plant was created in 1963, and a Special Software Design and Engineering Bureau was created in 1980; they made a significant contribution to the implementation of the Institute’s achievements.
Within the framework of studies on the creation of electronic computing machines (ECMs) with high-level input and output languages, the foundations were laid back in the 1960s for creating the mini-ECM “Promin’” for scientific calculations and the family of ECMs “MIR” and implementing them into production; they became the basis for the formation of the industry of small ECMs in the country. Computers of this class implemented fundamentally new ideas of organization of computational processes and their architectures, which were widely used later in practically all domestic and foreign ECMs.
A result of works on the creation of control computers became the development of the series “Dnepr” of general-purpose ECMs, specialized control ECMs “Kiev,” and others. The creation of the first domestic ECM “Dnepr” initiated the development of industrial production of control computers. In the late 1960s, 30% of the totality of ECMs in the USSR were ECMs created based on developments of the Institute.
Constant work on new principles of constructing large ECMs led to the development of a technical project of the large-scale computer “Ukraine” in 1966. It was not fully implemented but contained many ideas forestalling many solutions that were later used in ECMs created in the United States in the 1970s.
Owing to the proposed and developed conceptions of non-Von Neumann architectures of computers, the super-ECM “ЕС-1766” (ЕС written in Cyrillic means a Unified System (of ECMs)) with macroconveyor organization of computations was created and then was presented for serial production in 1987; it was the first super-ECM in the USSR and had no analogues in the world at that time. At the same time, a new direction of the Institute’s work in the field of programming was initiated, namely, the development of the theory and software of parallel computations. The proposed principle of macroconveyor organization of computation processes in parallel ECMs and undertaken theoretical research of the corresponding models and data structures of parallel macroconveyor computations made it possible to reach record efficiency in performing complicated scientific computations and solving information retrieval problems in large-volume data.
In the 1970s and 1980s, theoretical bases, practical methods, and means for the creation of mini- and micro-ECMs oriented towards different fields of application and micro-ECMs with flexible architectures and quality technical and economic parameters were developed. First (in the country) exemplars of such machines were developed, and their serial production began. In 1975, in collaboration with the Research-and-Production Association (RPA) “Svetlana,” the first (in the country) family of micro-ECMs “Электроника – С5” (“Elektronika – С5”) was created based on large-scale integration circuits, and its serial production was started. Together with organizations and enterprises of branch ministries, basic models of personal ECMs (“ЕС-1840,” “ЕС-1841,” “Нейрон,” etc.) were created whose properties opened ample possibilities of automation in various fields.
Along with the development of methods and means for creating ECMs, studies on the extension of their scope were carried out. Numerical methods were developed for solving applied problems in mathematics, mechanics, filtering theory, nuclear physics, and electronics. Methods of mathematical modeling and the use of ECMs in solving problems of automatic control became of importance.
The foundations of the theory of optimal solutions laid in the 1960s subsequently led to the creation of efficient mathematic methods and tools for solving optimal control and planning problems. The most important among them were methods of sequential analysis of variants, falling vector method schemes, generalized gradient random search methods, methods of the theory of differential games, etc. Owing to their development, a considerable contribution was made to the theory and practice of control of complex processes using ECMs. In particular, important scientific and engineering problems were solved such as calculating optimum workloads for metallurgical plants, choosing organizational decisions in constructing main pipelines, planning the transportation of petroleum products via a common transport network, managing water resources, etc.
In 1963, V.M. Glushkov put forward the ideas of combining computer centers into a nationwide network and creating a Nationwide Automated Data Acquisition and Processing System and a Republican Automated System on this basis.
Within the framework of creating computer-aided systems of different levels and purposes, the Automated Enterprise Management System (AEMS) “Lviv” was developed in 1967 for the first time in the country in collaboration with the Lviv Television Factory, which included many conceptually new technical solutions and planned-economic decisions. For several years, it was implemented into dozens of enterprises in the country.
One of the best process control systems, “Galvanik,” which provided the real-time solution of a considerable variety of problems of control of galvanic processes, was implemented into many metal-working plants of the country.
“Lviv” and “Galvanik” were among the first systems from which the acceptance of automated control systems (ACSs) began in the country as evidenced by the fact that their authors were awarded with State Prizes of the Ukrainian SSR.
At the end of the 1960s, the typical automated production management system (APMS) “Kuntsevo” was created for managing multiproduct enterprises of machine-building and instrument-making profiles. The typical software-hardware complexes “Mars,” “Merkuriy,” “Bars,” etc. were widely introduced.
In the late 1960s, the Institute became one of leading scientific institutions whose works promoted the formation of scientific and technical policies in the field of automation and application of computer aids in various spheres. Unique design automation systems were created and implemented into machine building, instrument-making, and transport. Overall, in the 1960s and 1970s, the Institute developed and handed over to industry more than 30 original ECMs and computer complexes of different purposes, which did not have any analogues.
The Institute was active in mathematical software for multiple-access computer centers and proposed new approaches to the creation of databases and their control systems and also methodological bases for the industrial design of data banks using standard general-purpose software.
Mathematical software of large general-purpose systems created in the Institute was used in hundreds of organizations. They included software complexes for computer-aided learning, designing, and modeling systems, biomedical systems, etc.
The apparatus of the theory of control of dynamic systems was studied, and its applications to the creation of automated control systems for objects with distributed parameters, technological processes, physical experiments, and ecological systems were considered.
In collaboration with the “Druzhba” Trunk Pipelines Management Department of Minnaftotrans of the USSR, an automated trunk oil pipeline control system was put into operation.
In the course of works on artificial intelligence, which began back in 1959, a number of intelligent systems were created, in particular, those for recognizing images and oral speech.
A number of information, medical, biological, and diagnostic systems were developed and implemented. In the Institute, during its first years of existence, the apparatus «artificial heart-lungs,» which supported the vital activity of a person during an operation on his heart, was created under the guidance of M.M. Amosov, Academician of NAS of Ukraine. Later on, the apparatuses “Mioton” and “Miostimul” and their modifications were developed, and they are widely used in medical practice for the treatment of patients up to the present day.
The creation of the world’s first “Encyclopedia of Cybernetics” became a significant event in the history of the Institute.