## History of Institute. The first computer |

**Kiev, 1950**: 1st computer of former USSR**1957**: GIC was founded as a Computational Center of the Academy of Science of Ukraine on the base of the 1st computer lab**1959**: GIC development of image and oral language recognition starts in pioneer artificial intelligence applications**1960s**: development of small computers started from "Promin" and "Mir"**Late 1960s**: about 30% of computers in the USSR were of types "Mir" and "Dnepr" developed in GIC**1960-70s**: GIC has developed over 30 original computers and computer systems for various purposes-
**1987**: 1st Soviet supercomputer with the macropipelining of calculations "ES-1766" based on original architecture **Late 1980s – early 1990s**: GIC turned into a comprehensive research institution**Early 1990s**: GIC was reorganized into Cybernetic Center of NAS of Ukraine**1996:**Victor Glushkov: Computer Pioneer Award for digital automation of computer architecture (IEEE)**Since 2004**: development of supercomputer family "SCIT", the high performance computing cluster systems**Since 2010**: National-level Resource Center of Ukrainian National Grid (UNG)

History of GIC began in 1957 with establishing of Computing Center at the lab of Computational Mathematics and Technology in the Institute of Mathematics. In 1962 it was converted to GIC. In this lab in 1950 under the leadership of Academician S. Lebedev the first in the USSR small electronic computer "MESM" was created.

Computer "MESM"

From the first years GIC held deep theoretical research in optimization theory, abstract and applied theory of automates, theory of converters, artificial intelligence, theory of programming.

Methods and tools of computer science have been applied to economics, biology, medicine, system analysis, modeling and solving of complex multidimensional problems.

Our development of image and oral language recognition roots in pioneer artificial intelligence applications of 1959.

In 1960s the development of small computers started from "Promin" and "Mir". They became the contribution to the development of small computers industry in the country. In machines of this class entirely new idea of the computational process and architecture was implemented and then it was widely used in almost all domestic and foreign computers.

Computer "Mir-1"

In the late 1960s about 30% of computers in the USSR were of types "Mir" and "Dnepr" developed in GIC. Due to development of such computers application area of design automation was extended to mechanical engineering, instrument making and transport.

In 1960-70s GIC has developed over 30 original computers and computer systems for various purposes.

In 1970-1980s the numerical methods for mathematics, mechanics, hydrodynamics, nuclear physics, electronics were developed.

In 1987 the first Soviet supercomputer with the macropipelining of calculations "ES-1766" was created. It was based on original architecture.

At the same time a new line of the Institute work in the field of programming - the development of theory and software for parallel computing was launched.

In late 1980s – early 1990s GIC turned into a comprehensive research institution, which included Institute of Cybernetics with training center, Special Design Bureau of Mathematical Machines and Systems with engineering centers, Special Design and Technology Bureau of Software and Computer Center "Orbita". GIC stuff increased up to 6500 employees, including over 70 doctors of sciences and about 600 PhDs.

In the early 1990s, after the collapse of the USSR, GIC was reorganized into Cybernetic Center of NAS of Ukraine. This Center consists of GIC (basic organization), the Institute of Mathematical Machines and Systems, Institute of Software, Institute for Space Research, Institute for Applied Systems Analysis and the International Research and Training Center for Information Technology and Systems.

Among the important achievements of GIC since 2004 is development of supercomputer family "SCIT", the high performance computing cluster systems which possessed high positions in the exUSSR supercomputers rating "Top50". Now "SCIT" is center of the Ukrainian National Grid.

The hybrid supercomputer "SCIT-4" developed in 2012 is currently the top performance and the most "green" HPC system of Ukraine.

Supercomputer "SCIT"

GIC scientists published over 400 books, thousands of articles, many of which are translated abroad, received hundreds of inventor’s certificates.

Scientific achievements of GIC awarded with two Lenin Prizes, 29 State Prizes of the USSR and Ukraine, more than 40 other prizes.

## GIC famous persons |

**Mykola Amosov** (1913-2002), MD, Academician of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

Ukrainian doctor, heart surgeon, inventor of several surgical procedures for treating heart defects.

Along with surgery Amosov paid much attention to contemporary problems of biological, medical and psychological cybernetics. From 1959 to 1990 he headed the Department of Biological Cybernetics at Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics.

Under Amosov leadership the fundamental studies of the heart systems self-regulation were conducted and the problems of machine diagnosis of heart disease were studied. Physiological models of "internal environment", computer models of basic mental functions, and some social-psychological mechanisms of human behavior have been developed.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mykola_Amosov

**Vladimir Mikhalevich** (1930-1994), scientist in Economic Cybernetics, Doctor of Science, Professor, Academician of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

Advisor of the President of Ukraine for informatization.

Since 1958 he worked at Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics as a Head of Department, Deputy Director and Director (1982-1994).

He worked in theory of optimal solutions, economic cybernetics, development of high performance computers, software packages, computer science.

**Boris Pshenychnyy ** (1937-2000), well-known cybernetic and mathematician, Doctor of Science, Professor, Academician of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

He had joined Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics just after the university graduation and left there for all his life.

The field of scientific interests of Boris Pshenychnyy is extremely wide and covers the design of networks, graph theory, mathematical programming, theory and numerical optimization methods, optimal control theory, differential games, convex analysis and the necessary conditions for an extremum, multivalued reflections and differential inclusions, models of economic dynamics, minimax parameter estimation, the problem of finding moving objects, solving variational inequalities.

**Naum Shor** (1937-2006), Doctor of Science, professor, Academician of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

Soviet and Ukrainian mathematician specializing in optimization.

After the university graduation he had joined Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics, where he worked for all his life.

Naum Shor made significant contributions to nonlinear and stochastic programming, numerical techniques for non-smooth optimization, discrete optimization problems, matrix optimization, dual quadratic bounds in multi-extremal programming problems.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naum_Z._Shor

**Alexander Kukhtenko** (1914-1994), scientist in Mechanics and Technical Cybernetics, Academician of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

Since 1963 he worked at Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics.

The works of Alexander Kukhtenko devoted to analytical mechanics, automatic control theory, systems theory (axiomatic theory of dynamic control systems) and its applications in the development of control for complex technical systems.